Why should hackers learn about computer hardware

How can I learn more about computers?

Updated: 08/02/2019 by Computer Hope

This document is for anyone interested in learning more about their computer and how it works. Here you will find all related documents throughout Computer Hope that can teach you everything you want to know about your computer.

Computer overview

Understanding each of the major hardware components that make up a computer is always a good first step in learning more about computers. To learn more about each of the components in the computer, its connections, as well as a full explanation of each of the internal parts of a computer, see our computer definition.

15 computer topics

  1. Transistors - The computer contains millions of transistors, which are used to create machine language using logic gates that turn on and off the circuits.
  2. Machine language - All computers and electronic devices communicate in binary, which is a series of 0's and 1's or Off and On electrical signals. All software written on your computer is created in a high-level programming language that humans can understand. When complete, the program is compiled into a low-level machine language that computers understand.
  3. ASCII codes - Each binary 0 or 1 is considered a bit and each number, letter, or other character is made up of eight bits (one byte). A common method for storing and editing text is done with ASCII codes, which is one byte of binary. For example, the lowercase letter "a" has an ASCII code decimal value of 97, which is 01100001 in binary.
  4. Motherboard - The Motherboard is the largest circuit board in the computer that holds and connects everything together. Without the motherboard, components like your processor and memory could not communicate with each other.
  5. Computer memory - Not to be confused with disk storage, the computer memory (RAM) is volatile memory and is used to store currently running applications. When the computer is turned off, all data in the memory is lost.
  6. Computer disk storage - A non-volatile type of memory, disk storage like a hard drive is what stores your information even when the computer is turned off. All your files, documents, songs, photos, etc. are stored in a storage device.
  7. ROM - Another type of memory, read-only memory (ROM) is a memory chip that has data which can only be read. Most computers today have a programmable read-only memory (PROM), which is still read-only, but can be re-programmed if needed through a firmware update.
  8. Memory capacity - All memory and storage has a total capacity that is written using abbreviations such as KB, MB, GB, and TB. See the full overview of all computer capacities for a complete understanding of all values.
  9. Processor - The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the component responsible for processing all instructions from software and hardware.
  10. Software and Hardware - Software is instructions and code installed into the computer, like the Internet browser you're using to view this page. Hardware is a physical device you can touch, like the monitor you're using to display this page. See the differences between computer hardware and software for more information.
  11. Input/Output - Humans use input devices, such as a keyboard, to interact with a computer. The computer processes that data, then sends the modified or new information to an output device, such as a monitor. The printer is another output device, which can produce a hard copy of documents and pictures stored on the computer.
  12. Expansion cards - An expansion card is a card that can be added to the computer to give it additional capabilities. A video card, modem, network card, and sound card are all examples of expansion cards. However, many computers may also have onboard devices, such as a sound card and network card that are built onto the motherboard. For a laptop computer, additional cards are added into the PC Card slot.
  13. Programming - All software running on a computer was created using a programming language by a computer programmer.
  14. Operating system - Every computer must have an operating system for software to communicate with the hardware. For example, most IBM compatible computers run the Microsoft Windows operating system and have the option to run alternative operating systems, such as a Linux variant. Apple computers only run macOS.
  15. Network - Computers communicate with other computers over a network using a network interface card (NIC) or Wi-Fi that connects to a router. There are two primary types of networks: a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN). The Internet is also considered a network, which uses the TCP/IPprotocol.

How does a computer work?

Knowing how the computer works after you press the power button is also an excellent way to learn more about your computer.

How to use a computer

If you are new to using a computer and need additional help, or want a better understanding of how to use a computer, see our how to use a computer guide.

Familiarize yourself with the computer jargon

It would be impossible to know every computer-related term. However, familiarizing yourself with the top computer-related terms is another great way to learn more about computers.

Computer history

The history of computers and how they have progressed over the years is another great way get a better understanding of computers. We've listed several thousand key events in our computer history section and list hundreds of computer pioneers who have made the computer industry what it is today.

Keep informed

Computers and their hardware and related software are constantly evolving. Try to keep as up-to-date as possible by reading computer-related news, blogs, RSS feeds, newsletters, forums, and following computer people on social networking sites like Twitter.

Computer quiz

Ready to test yourself and learn more about computers at the same time? Take the Computer Hope quiz, which contains hundreds of computer-related questions. After each question is answered, a brief description of the answer is given, as well as additional information and related links. When the quiz is completed, you'll get a complete overview of what categories you may need to learn more about and links to where you can find that information.

Free college courses

Many of the big colleges and universities have posted free online courses that can be watched by anyone, covering a wide range of computer-related topics. Watching these online can give you a similar education to what you may get by going to school.

Online free books

There are hundreds of thousands of online computer books and computer-related e-books that can be downloaded. See the eBook definition for a full listing of places to find books online for free and legally.