As found on the Lumina Study Tool.
Abbreviations for Biblical Books and Nonbiblical Literature
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Song of Songs
Books of the Old Testament Apocrypha
Additions to Daniel
Prayer of Azariah
Bel and the Dragon
Song of the Three Young Men
Additions to Esther
Epistle of Jeremiah
Prayer of Manasseh
Wisdom of Solomon
Other Ancient Documents
Two citation systems for Philo and Josephus are used in the notes. The older (classical) system is listed first, and the Loeb citation system then follows in parentheses.
1 Enoch, a Jewish pseudepigraphic work that includes what are thought to be Christian interpolations in chaps. 37-71 (also called Ethiopic Enoch)
1 Kingdoms, the book of the LXX which corresponds to 1 Samuel
Thanksgiving Hymns, hymns composed for worship within the Qumran community
Rule of the Community, one of the first Dead Sea Scrolls recovered. This scroll details rules for admission into the Qumran community.
2 Baruch, a Jewish apocalyptic work written early in the second century
2 Enoch, an Jewish pseudepigraphic work that expands upon Gen 5:21-32
Miqsat Maàaseh Torah from Qumran Cave 4, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Against Apion, a defense of the Jewish people written by Josephus, a Jewish historian who lived from a.d. 37/38 until the early years of the second century.
Jewish Antiquities, a history of the Jewish people written by Josephus (seeAg. Ap. above)
Indicates a tractate from the Babylonian Talmud, which contains the Mishnah and rabbinic interpretive expansions. Collected ca. a.d. 500-550.
A copy of the Damascus Document, which is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, found in the Cairo genizah
On the Embassy to Gaius, a philosophical work by Philo, a Jewish philosopher who lived from 20 b.c. to a.d. 50
Praeparatio evangelica (Preparation for the Gospel), a work by Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, who lived ca. a.d. 260-341
Against Flaccus, a philosophical work by Philo (see Embassy above)
Who is the Heir?, a philosophical work by Philo (see Embassy above)
Shepherd of Hermas, a Christian work written in Rome sometime during the 1st and 2nd centuries a.d.
Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra, a medieval Jewish scholar who wrote many works, including a commentary on the Hebrew Bible. Lived a.d. 1092/1093 to a.d.1167.
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, who died as a martyr in Rome early in the second century. Following will be the abbreviation for one of his seven letters.
Jewish War, a history of the events surrounding the war between Rome and the Jews ca. a.d. 70 written by Josephus (see Ag. Ap. above)
Jubilees, a Jewish pseudepigraphic work that expands upon the narratives in Genesis and Exodus
Letter of Aristeas
An ancient letter which purports to explain the origins of the LXX. Posited by most scholars to have been written ca. 170 b.c.
The Life, an autobiography of Josephus (see Ag. Ap. above)
Indicates a tractate from the Mishnah, a codification of Jewish rabbinic oral tradition collected ca. a.d. 200-220
A collection of the sayings from Jewish sages and rabbis
Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer
A collection of Jewish rabbinic tradition compiled ca. a.d. 750-850
On the Posterity of Cain, a philosophical work by Philo (see Embassy above)
Jewish rabbinic commentary on books of the Bible, e.g., Genesis Rabbah
Sibylline Oracles, a collection of poetic prophecies contained within the Jewish pseudepigrapha
Sifre on Deuteronomy, a collection of rabbinic interpretations on the book of Deuteronomy compiled ca. a.d. 350-400
Samaritan Pentateuch, the version of the first five books of the Old Testament accepted as canonical by the Samaritans
Indicates a tractate from the Tosefta, a codification of Jewish rabbinic oral tradition collected ca. a.d. 220-230
Testament of Gad, one of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, a group of works written between 109 and 106 b.c. and inspired by Jacob’s testament in Gen 49
Testament of Reuben, one of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (see T. Gad above)
Testament of Solomon, a story about Solomon building the Temple, written sometime during the 1st to 3rd centuries a.d.
Indicates a Targum, an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible which often included interpretive comments
Targum Onqelos, an Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch, regarded as the official targum of these books
Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, an Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch
Indicates a tractate from the Jerusalem Talmud (which actually took shape in Galilee ca. a.d. 400-425), a work which contains the Mishnah and rabbinic interpretive expansions
Abbreviations for Bible Versions
The NET Bible / New English Translation (NT, 1998; First Beta Edition, 2001; Second Beta Edition, 2003; First Edition, 2005)3
Today’s New International Version (NT, 2001)
New Living Translation (1996)
The Contemporary English Version (1995)
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