How are Bible passages abbreviated in Chinese

As found on the Lumina Study Tool.

  Abbreviations for Biblical Books and Nonbiblical Literature

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Old Testament

Gen

Genesis

Exod

Exodus

Lev

Leviticus

Num

Numbers

Deut

Deuteronomy

Josh

Joshua

Judg

Judges

Ruth

Ruth

1 Sam

1 Samuel

2 Sam

2 Samuel

1 Kgs

1 Kings

2 Kgs

2 Kings

1 Chr

1 Chronicles

2 Chr

2 Chronicles

Ezra

Ezra

Neh

Nehemiah

Esth

Esther

Job

Job

Ps(s)

Psalms

Prov

Proverbs

Eccl

Ecclesiastes

Song

Song of Songs

Isa

Isaiah

Jer

Jeremiah

Lam

Lamentations

Ezek

Ezekiel

Dan

Daniel

Hos

Hosea

Joel

Joel

Amos

Amos

Obad

Obadiah

Jonah

Jonah

Mic

Micah

Nah

Nahum

Hab

Habakkuk

Zeph

Zephaniah

Hag

Haggai

Zech

Zechariah

Mal

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament Apocrypha

Bar

Baruch

Add Dan

Additions to Daniel

Pr Azar

Prayer of Azariah

Bel

Bel and the Dragon

Sg Three

Song of the Three Young Men

Sus

Susanna

1–2 Esd

1–2 Esdras

Add Esth

Additions to Esther

Ep Jer

Epistle of Jeremiah

Jdt

Judith

1–4 Macc

1–4 Maccabees

Pr Man

Prayer of Manasseh

Ps 151

Psalm 151

Sir

Sirach/ Ecclesiasticus

Tob

Tobit

Wis

Wisdom of Solomon

New Testament

Matt

Matthew

Mark

Mark

Luke

Luke

John

John

Acts

Acts

Rom

Romans

1 Cor

1 Corinthians

2 Cor

2 Corinthians

Gal

Galatians

Eph

Ephesians

Phil

Philippians

Col

Colossians

1 Thess

1 Thessalonians

2 Thess

2 Thessalonians

1 Tim

1 Timothy

2 Tim

2 Timothy

Titus

Titus

Phlm

Philemon

Heb

Hebrews

Jas

James

1 Pet

1 Peter

2 Pet

2 Peter

1 John

1 John

2 John

2 John

3 John

3 John

Jude

Jude

Rev

Revelation

Other Ancient Documents

Two citation systems for Philo and Josephus are used in the notes. The older (classical) system is listed first, and the Loeb citation system then follows in parentheses.

1 En.

1 Enoch, a Jewish pseudepigraphic work that includes what are thought to be Christian interpolations in chaps. 37-71 (also called Ethiopic Enoch)

1 Kgdms

1 Kingdoms, the book of the LXX which corresponds to 1 Samuel

1QH

Thanksgiving Hymns, hymns composed for worship within the Qumran community

1QS

Rule of the Community, one of the first Dead Sea Scrolls recovered. This scroll details rules for admission into the Qumran community.

2 Bar.

2 Baruch, a Jewish apocalyptic work written early in the second century

2 En.

2 Enoch, an Jewish pseudepigraphic work that expands upon Gen 5:21-32

4QMMT

Miqsat Maàaseh Torah from Qumran Cave 4, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Ag. Ap.

Against Apion, a defense of the Jewish people written by Josephus, a Jewish historian who lived from a.d. 37/38 until the early years of the second century.

Ant.

Jewish Antiquities, a history of the Jewish people written by Josephus (seeAg. Ap. above)

b.

Indicates a tractate from the Babylonian Talmud, which contains the Mishnah and rabbinic interpretive expansions. Collected ca. a.d. 500-550.

CD

A copy of the Damascus Document, which is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, found in the Cairo genizah

Embassy

On the Embassy to Gaius, a philosophical work by Philo, a Jewish philosopher who lived from 20 b.c. to a.d. 50

Praep. Ev.

Praeparatio evangelica (Preparation for the Gospel), a work by Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, who lived ca. a.d. 260-341

Flaccus

Against Flaccus, a philosophical work by Philo (see Embassy above)

Heir

Who is the Heir?, a philosophical work by Philo (see Embassy above)

Herm.

Shepherd of Hermas, a Christian work written in Rome sometime during the 1st and 2nd centuries a.d.

Ibn Ezra

Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra, a medieval Jewish scholar who wrote many works, including a commentary on the Hebrew Bible. Lived a.d. 1092/1093 to a.d.1167.

Ign.

Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, who died as a martyr in Rome early in the second century. Following will be the abbreviation for one of his seven letters.

J. W.

Jewish War, a history of the events surrounding the war between Rome and the Jews ca. a.d. 70 written by Josephus (see Ag. Ap. above)

Jub.

Jubilees, a Jewish pseudepigraphic work that expands upon the narratives in Genesis and Exodus

Letter of Aristeas

An ancient letter which purports to explain the origins of the LXX. Posited by most scholars to have been written ca. 170 b.c.

Life

The Life, an autobiography of Josephus (see Ag. Ap. above)

m.

Indicates a tractate from the Mishnah, a codification of Jewish rabbinic oral tradition collected ca. a.d. 200-220

Pirqe Avot

A collection of the sayings from Jewish sages and rabbis

Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer

A collection of Jewish rabbinic tradition compiled ca. a.d. 750-850

Posterity

On the Posterity of Cain, a philosophical work by Philo (see Embassy above)

Rabbah

Jewish rabbinic commentary on books of the Bible, e.g., Genesis Rabbah

Sib. Or.

Sibylline Oracles, a collection of poetic prophecies contained within the Jewish pseudepigrapha

Sifre Deut

Sifre on Deuteronomy, a collection of rabbinic interpretations on the book of Deuteronomy compiled ca. a.d. 350-400

Smr

Samaritan Pentateuch, the version of the first five books of the Old Testament accepted as canonical by the Samaritans

t.

Indicates a tractate from the Tosefta, a codification of Jewish rabbinic oral tradition collected ca. a.d. 220-230

T. Gad

Testament of Gad, one of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, a group of works written between 109 and 106 b.c. and inspired by Jacob’s testament in Gen 49

T. Reu.

Testament of Reuben, one of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (see T. Gad above)

T. Sol.

Testament of Solomon, a story about Solomon building the Temple, written sometime during the 1st to 3rd centuries a.d.

Tg.

Indicates a Targum, an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible which often included interpretive comments

Tg. Onq.

Targum Onqelos, an Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch, regarded as the official targum of these books

Tg. Ps.-J.

Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, an Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch

y.

Indicates a tractate from the Jerusalem Talmud (which actually took shape in Galilee ca. a.d. 400-425), a work which contains the Mishnah and rabbinic interpretive expansions

Abbreviations for Bible Versions

English Versions

NET

The NET Bible / New English Translation (NT, 1998; First Beta Edition, 2001; Second Beta Edition, 2003; First Edition, 2005)3

TNIV

Today’s New International Version (NT, 2001)

NLT

New Living Translation (1996)

CEV

The Contemporary English Version (1995)